Different programming languages have their own different database access interfaces, through which programming languages execute SQL statements and manage databases. The main database access interfaces are ODBC, JDBC, ADO.NET and PDO.
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) provides a common interface for accessing different SQL databases. ODBC uses SQL as the standard for accessing data. This interface provides maximum interoperability. An application can access different SQL database management systems through a common set of code.
An ODBC-based application does not depend on any DBMS for the operation of the database, and does not directly deal with the DBMS. All database operations are completed by the ODBC driver of the corresponding DBMS. That is, both MySQL and Oracle databases can be accessed using the ODBC API. It can be seen that the biggest advantage of ODBC is that it can handle all databases in a unified manner.
Java Data Base (JDBC, Java Database Connectivity) is a standard method for Java applications to connect to databases. It is a Java API for executing SQL statements and can provide unified access to a variety of relational databases. Composition of classes and interfaces written.
ADO.NET is a set of object-oriented class libraries developed and designed by Microsoft under the .NET framework for interacting with data sources. ADO.NET provides access to relational data, XML, and applications, allowing interaction with different types of data sources and databases.
PDO (PHP Data Object) defines a lightweight and consistent interface for PHP to access databases. It provides a data access abstraction layer, so that no matter what database is used, queries and data can be executed through consistent functions. . PDO is a major new addition to PHP 5.